Language of data  |   Arabic   ·  English

Kitāb al-samāʿ wa-l-waǧd

Part of
Number of part

Kitāb 18


Date of creation
  • 12th century   Gregorian
Preferred title

Kitāb al-samāʿ wa-l-waǧd   Arabic  IDEO-IFAO transliteration scheme

كتاب آداب السماع والوجد   Arabic  

Work type Single work
Non-literary work Discursive work
Work manifested Early work
Work genre Textual work

Adult, serious


Responses Proper to Listening to Music and the Experience of Ecstasy is the eighteen chapter of the Revival of the Religious Sciences (Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din), a monumental work of classical Islam written by the renowned theologian-mystic Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (d. 1111). This chapter of the Revival deals with the controversial topic of music. In the Islamic legal tradition, there is disagreement as to whether or not performing and listening to music is lawful, even more, whether music might be used as a path to ecstasy.
Basing himself on the Qur’an, hadith, the first generations of Muslims and the mystical tradition, Ghazali presents the arguments both for and against listening to music. Ghazali’s own position is that music in itself is permissible, though under certain circumstances it can be unlawful or undesirable. Ghazali emphasises awareness of the omnipresence of God in creation and the importance of using the mind, hearing and sight to bring one closer to God. In Responses Proper to Listening to Music and the Experience of Ecstasy he gives lyrical expression to his love of poetry and music, and their legitimate place not only in human celebrations, but in divine worship and as aids on the path to gnosis and ecstasy. All such responses he sees exemplified in the life of the Prophet with his family.


Diamond   W 235490

Created at 04-01-2020 by René-Vincent du Grandlaunay (IDEO)

Updated at 04-01-2020 by René-Vincent du Grandlaunay (IDEO)


This work doesn't have current editions in Dominican Institute for Oriental Studies